1830 and 1840 Enumerator's Instructions ( both being virtually the same)
The 1830 Census was the first enumeration in which a uniform, printed, schedule was used to enumerate the people of the United States. U. S. Marshall's and their assistants collected information of the households with schedules supplied by individual marshal's or schedules supplied by the States. Prior to 1830, schedules were sometimes rather haphazard with the Marshall's submitting the return forms with information they felt like asking or what was "convenient " to them rather then factual. Enumeration began on the 1st day of June and included all persons in a family,(whether present or not). The enumerators were not to include any person that may have been visiting the family if that person lived elsewhere in another family on the 1st day of June,1830. Although not required by the census act, they did include persons that may have been deceased prior to that day, but did not include infants born after that day. This was not expressed in exact terms of the census act but undoubtably was a tool for the legislator to try and have the census as accurate as possible with population and to have knowledge of all those who were living within the year.
The enumeration commenced on the 1st day of June and included all persons of a family except Indians not taxed, (whether present or not). It did not include any person whose usual abode was not in the family being enumerated on said 1st day of June.
1850 and 1860 Enumerator's Instructions (Both being virtually the same)
- Hotels, poorhouses, orphanages, garrisons, hospitals, asylums, jails, penitentiaries, and other similar institutions were to be recorded as dwelling houses; if the house was of a public nature as above, the enumerator was to write the structure's name perpendicularly, in the appropriate column. The residents of the stated institutions were considered as one family.
- The definition of "family" was described as either one person living separately in a house, or a part of a house, and providing for him or herself. This could include several persons living together in a house, or in part of a house, upon one common means of support, and separately from others in similar circumstances. A widow living alone and separately providing for herself, or 200 individuals living together that were provided for by a common head, were each numbered as one family.
- Place of abode was the house or usual lodging place of a person. Anyone who was temporarily absent from the residence, without taking up residence elsewhere (with the intention of returning again to that abode), was considered a member of the family in the residence that was being enumerated by the assistant Marshall.
- Students in colleges, academies, or schools, when absent from their families, were to be enumerated only as members of the family in which they boarded and lodged on the 1st day of June rather than with the family of kinship.
- Names were written beginning with the father and mother; if either or both were deceased, the enumerator began with some other head of the family; to be followed with the name of the oldest child residing in the home, then to the next oldest, and so on to the youngest child.
- Age of an individual was inserted in figures with specific age of the person at their last birthday, previous to the 1st day of June. If the exact age could not be determined, enumerators were to insert a number which would be to the nearest approximation. The exact or estimated age of everyone was to be recorded.
- If the person was a child under the age of 1 year, the entry was to be made by fractional parts of the year, one month ( 1-12 ), two months ( 2-12 ), etc.
- Indians not taxed were not to be enumerated in this or any other schedule.
1870 Enumerator's Instructions
Many individuals (especially in cities), lived in their shops, stores, and other structures. They also lived in places which were not primarily intended to be residential. Careful inquiry was to be made to include this class, and such buildings were to be recognized as dwelling houses within the intention of the census law. A watchman or clerk belonging to a family residing in the same town or city, and sleeping in such store or shop for the purpose of security, were to be enumerated with head of household family.
- The definition of "family" was one or more persons living together and provided for in common. A single person living alone in a distinct part of a house, would constitute a family; on the other hand, all inmates of an orphanage , poorhouse, asylum, etc. would also be considered a single family even though there may be among them many husbands with wives and children. Under whatever circumstances, and in whatever numbers, people living together under one roof, and were being provided for in common, were considered family under the meaning of the law.
- The name of every person in each family (of whatever age), was to be recorded by the enumerator, including the names of those temporary absent on the 1st day of June, 1870. The name of any member of the family who may have died between the 1st day of June, 1870, and the day of the assistant Marshall's visit was entered, and the person fully described as if living, but the name of any person born during that period was to be omitted.
- Place of abode was a house or usual lodging place of the individual . All persons temporarily absent (for whatever reason), were to be counted as of the family but children and youth absent for purposes of education on the 1st day of June, and having their home in a family where the school or college was situated, were enumerated at the latter place.
- The exact age of individuals, in figures, was to be recorded wherever the same can be obtained; otherwise, the nearest approximation was entered. If the age was of considerable doubt, or could not be confirmed, the assistant marshal could make note to that effect, although not required. Children, who, on the 1st day of June, 1870, were less than a year old, had their age stated by the fractional part of the year, one month ( 1-12 ), three months ( 3-12 ), nine months ( 9-12 ), etc. In all other cases, months were to be omitted. The age taken was from the last birthday of the individual.
- Color was not to be assumed where nothing was written in the designated column. White was automatically to be understood. The column was to be filled and not left blank. Enumerators were to be particularly careful in reporting the class Mulatto. The word was generic, and included quadroons, octoroons, and all persons having any perceptible trace of African blood. Important scientific results depended upon the correct determination of that class in schedules 1 and 2.
- Indians not taxed were not to be enumerated on schedule 1. Indians out of their tribal surroundings and exercising the rights of citizens under state or Territorial laws, were to be included. In all cases "Ind" was to be written in the column for "color." Although no provision was made for the enumeration of "Indians not taxed," it was highly desirable (for statistical purposes), that the number of such persons not living upon reservations should be known. Assistant Marshalls were therefore requested, where such persons were found within their subdivisions, to make a separate memorandum of names, with sex and age, and report the same in a special report to the census office.
1880 Enumerator Instructions
- By law it was the duty of each duly qualified enumerator to visit personally each dwelling , family, and individual living out of family in any place of abode. The head of such family, or a member who appeared most credible and trustworthy, or individual living out of that family, were asked to obtain each item of information to the questions required by the act of March 3, 1879, as amended by act of April 20, 1880.
- Individuals living out of families were defined as all persons occupying lofts in public buildings, above stores, warehouses, factories, stables; persons living solitary in cabins, huts, or tents; persons sleeping on river boats, canal boats, barges, etc., and having no other usual place of abode, and persons in police stations having no homes. A notification letter was sent to the mayor of each large city in the United States, requesting cooperation of the police to help prevent omission of individuals whose living quarters were as stated above .
- By law, a person found at the usual place of abode of a family (who was competent to answer the inquiries), but not a member in that family, was able to answer questions for the enumerator to obtain the required information from that person as nearly as may be practicable, from the family or families, or person(s), living nearest to such place of abode.
If the head of household or other members of the family were absent at the time of enumeration any person of the family over 20 years old was required to give a true account (to the best of their knowledge), of every person belonging in that family, and to answer the questions that a superintendent, supervisor, or enumerator would ask. If that person willfully refused or failed to answer the questions they were guilty of a misdemeanor and were fined, having to pay a sum of money not to exceed one hundred dollars.
There was an attempt in 1880 to enumerate Indians living on the reservations with a questionnaire known as Schedule 1, "Indian Division". A full enumeration was made on many of the tribes, especially those who were on the West Coast, The investigation was stopped however, by the failure of the appropriation and was not resumed.
- The Indian schedule consisted of the following questions; Name of the individual, (Indian name and English translation of the Indian name, or other name consistently used); relationship to the head of household; if single, married, widowed, or divorced, and if they were a chief or war chief. They were also asked if they were Indian of full blood or of mixed blood; had they been adopted into the tribe; time in years and fractions the person had lived on the reservation; time in years and fractions the reason they had worn "citizen's dress", what was the language spoken, sex , age, occupation, if sick or disabled, the nature of their illness or disability; if they had been vaccinated; were they were maimed, crippled, bedridden, or otherwise disabled; if they were blind, deaf and dumb, idiotic, or insane; did they attend school, literacy, number of livestock owned such as horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and dogs; if they possessed a firearm; did they own acreage, and if so, type of ownership; time taken in cultivating land; if they were self supporting or were they supported by other entities such as family, Government, etc.; their occupation, farmer, hunter, fisherman, etc., also the question of what was the "natural products of the soil," roots, berries, etc. that was produced.
1890 Enumerator Instructions
The statistics of population and other data concerning persons residing in institutions was taken by designated, official institution enumerators,or other trustworthy persons connected to the institution that were specifically appointed for that purpose. The special institution enumerators were determined partly by the size of the institution and partly by its nature and did not include all institutions. Institutions that did not fall into the specific plan were enumerated by a regular enumerator the same way as all other houses.
- Indians not taxed were to be omitted from the enumeration.
- The meaning of "Indians not taxed" was any Indian roaming the land individually, those in tribes or bands, those on unsettled areas of the country, and those on a reservation under the care of the U.S. Government.
- Indians not living within tribes (whether full-blood or half-breeds), but were found living in white population, in white families, working as servants or laborers, living in huts or wigwams, etc., or living on the outter edge of towns or settlements, we're to be regarded as part of the ordinary population of the country, and were to be enumerated. The purpose of this was for the constitutional apportionment of Representatives amoung the states.
- Indians living on reservations were enumerated by special agents appointed directly from the census office. Regular supervisors and enumerators had no responsibility in this connection. Many Indians, however, had left their tribes or their reservations and were independent individuals. When enumerators found Indians living off the reservation or living away from reservations, and in no way dependent upon the Indian agency or Government, such Indians, in addition to their enumeration on the population and supplemental schedules, were enumerated in the same manner as for the population generally, but were noted on a special schedule ( 7- 917) by name, tribe, sex, age, occupation, and whether taxed or not. The object was to obtain accurate census information of all Indians living in the United States and to prevent double enumeration of certain Indians. If an Indian was temporarily absent from the reservation the census enumerators did not need to take note of the individual, as the special agent for the Indian reservation would record their name.
- Place of abode. The census law is not clear in precise terms of what constitutes the definition "place of abode" therefore it was left to the judgement of the enumerator to include or not to include doubtful cases of boarders in hotels, students at schools or colleges, and to make inquiries to ascertain whether the person is actually living in the place being enumerated.
- Individuals living in institutions or schools were referred to as an inmate, pupil, prisoner, orphan, or some equivalent term which clearly distinguished them from the officers and employees and their families living in the institution. Person in charge of the institutions were referred to as Matron, Master, Supervisor or Head.The head person in Catholic Institutions were referred to as Mother Superior, or Lady Superior.
- The word "black" was to be used to describe persons who had three-fourths or more black blood; "mulatto"
1900 Enumerators Instructions
The census law does not give a precise definition to the term, "usual place of abode". Therefore, some people could have been reported in more then one place with others not being reported at all. Judgement was left to the enumerator to ascertain if the member of the family had been reported in another district within another family. Some may have been a boarder in a hotel, students at schools or colleges, or inmates of institutions and could very well have been enumerated more than once. It was imperative that the enumerator was to take extra care in making sure that the person was enumerated only one time.
- Orphans in institutions were to be enumerated in said place, as well as those who were inmates in a hospital or some other type of institution. However, if they had some other permanent place of residency, enumerators were to write that place in the margin on the left hand side of the page of the schedule.
- It was important to ascertain beyond a shadow of doubt that the person giving the information covered all the persons in the family, including not only the immediate members such as head, wife, children, but also relatives or other persons living within the family, examples being servants ( if they slept in the house), and persons who lived with the family as boarders, lodgers, etc.
- Color or Race (for whatever the case may have been) was to be written as follows: "W" for white; "B" for black (negro or negro decent) ; "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese, with "In" representing Indian.
- Age: for each person one year of age or over, enumerators were to enter the age at the last birthday, omitting months and days. Children, who on the 1st day of June, 1900, and were less the one year of age were recorded in months, or twelfths of a year, example being 3/12, for 3 months; 11/12, for 11 months, etc. For a child that was less than one month in age enumerators were to enter 0/12.
- Ages for all others who were not infants, the enumerator was to ascertain the exact month and year of birth. Answers such as "about 30", "about 45", were likely to be wrong, therefore the enumerators were to take every possible means in getting the exact age.
- Indian Population -The 1900 Indian schedule contained the following information in addition to the general population schedule. Questions asked on this schedule were the following: Other name (if any); Name of Indian tribe; tribal affiliation of mother and father; if the Indian was of full or of mixed blood; if living in polygamy; if taxed; year of citizenship ( if applicable); was citizenship acquired by allotment; and if living in a fixed or moveable dwelling. A modified form of Schedule No. 1 was used in making the enumeration of Indians who were living on the reservations and those living in family groups outside of the reservations.
Indians who were living in either a white or negro family outside of the reservation were enumerated on the general population schedule (Form 7-224) as members of the family in which they were found. Detached whites or negroes, living in Indian families were enumerated on schedule 1, as members of the Indian families in which they were found. To define further, every family made up of mainly Indian blood were reported entirely on schedule 1, and every family who was not Indian were reported entirely on the general population schedule.
- If an Indian did not have an occupation and was completely dependent on the Government for support, enumerators were to write "Rationed Indian". If they were partly self-supporting and only partly dependent on the Government, enumerators were to write the occupation of the person and then the letter "R" for ration. If the Indian was a child under the age of ten years, and received rations, enumerators were to write "Under age R".
- Indians who had one name in addition to the English name, both names were to be recorded.
- Indians born in the United States, were to give the enumerator the name of the State they were born in, and the birth State of their parents. This was to be recorded if at all possible. If the enumerator was not able to obtain this information, they were to record the name of the tribe the person was a member of, and the name of the tribe the parents were associated with.
If the Indian was full blood with no white blood mix, the enumerator was to write "0". If to some degree the Indian did have some white blood, the enumerator marked how much (by fractions that was to the nearest amount), such as 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, or 3/4.
- If the Indian had many wives living with him ( more than one), or if the Indian woman had more than one husband, the enumerator was to write "Yes" in the appropriate column. Indians with only one spouse were recorded as "No". Indians who did not have a spouse or spouses were reflected with the column being left blank.
- Indians were taxed if living off the reservation and detached from the tribe they belonged to. If they were living with their tribe but were receiving allotment of land, and were a citizen of the United States, the answer to the question would be written as "Yes". Any Indian on a reservation, without an allotment, or roaming over unsettled territory was considered "not taxed". In this case the enumerator was to write "No".
- Indians born in tribal relations, and having acquired American citizenship, had the year of citizenship recorded by the enumerator that the person became a citizen. If they had not received citizenship by the time of the enumeration, the enumerator was to leave column 36 blank. If Indians had acquired citizenship by receiving an allotment of land from the Government, the enumerator was to write "Yes". If they received citizenship by other means enumerators were to write "No". If they had not become a citizen by the time of enumeration enumerators were to leave column 37 blank.
- For Indians living in "moveable", or "temporary", structures such as a tent, tepee, wickiup, wigwam, etc. the enumerator wrote "moveable". For a permanent home of any kind, such as a hogan, enumerators were to write "Fixed" in column 38.
1910 Enumerator Instructions
A dwelling house for census purposes was a place of abode where one or more person slept. It was not necessarily a house per se. It could have been just a room in a factory, store, office building, or the like. It could also mean a loft over a stable, boat, tent, freight car, hogan,tepee, etc. A building that had multiple living quarters, such as an apartment house or tenement house, was considered as one dwelling house. It did not matter how many people or families lived in it.
A single building that had a partition wall running through it and a front door for each part, was classified as two dwelling homes. A two-apartment house, with one apartment over the other, and a separate front door for each apartment constituted the dwelling as being one house.
-The word "family" in this census was somewhat different from the previous censuses. The meaning in this census, was a group of persons living together in the same dwelling place. The persons within the group may or may not be related to each other in blood, but if they lived together forming one household, they were considered as being one family. A servant who slept in the house or on the premises would be included with the members of the family for which they worked. A boarder or lodger would also be included, however a person who boarded in one place and lodged or roomed at another, were to be recorded as a member of the family at the place where they lodged or roomed.
A notation however, is that two or more families may occupy the same dwelling house without living together. If they occupied separate sections of the house and their housekeeping was completely separate, the record was to show them as separate families.
- All occupants and employees of a hotel, boarding house, or lodging house that lived in these establishments for all intents and purposes of the census, constituted a single family. However, in an apartment or tenement house, there was usually as many families as there were separate individuals occupying apartments or tenements, even though use may have been made of a common place such as a store or restaurant.
- Officials and inmates of an institution who lived in the institution building or group of buildings formed one family. However, any officers or employees who slept in detached houses or separate dwelling places containing no inmates were recorded as separate families.
- A person living by themselves was considered as one family. Take for one instance, a clerk in a store who regularly slept in the building was counted as a family and the store as his dwelling place.
- When two or more persons shared a common abode as partners, enumerators were to record one as the head and the other as a partner.
- In regards to color or race of the individual, "W" was used to record white; "B" for black; "Mu" for mulatto; "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian. All other persons who were not of the above decents were classified as "Ot"( meaning other). This particular information was to be written on the left-hand margin of the schedule.
- The use of the word " Black" in the census included all persons who were 100% full blood negroes with the term "Mulatto" being used for those of mixed blood in whatever degree or race.
- In regards to the age it was to be completed in years from the last birthday however, this question, like all other questions on the schedule, related to April 15,1910. A person whose exact age on the census day of April 15, 1910 would be recorded as 17 years old. Although that person in reality, was actually 17 years, 11 months, and 25 days old as of that date, the enumerator may not have visited the home until after April 15, 1910, whereas the person would have turned 18 years old by that time.
People would sometimes report ages in round numbers as 30 or 45 although it would not be their exact age. If this was the case, the enumerator needed to inquire if it was an exact age. Approximate age was to be noted only if there was no way of obtaining the exact age. Under no circumstances was the column to be left blank.
It was extremely important to get the exact age of children. If a child was less then 2 years old, the age was to be noted in completed fractions of month, an example being, a child 3 months old was written as 3/12, of 7 months, 7/12, of 1 year and 3 months old as 1 3/12, etc. A child less then 1 month old would be written as 0/12. Noteworthy again, the question should be answered with reference to April 15, 1910. Again, an example would be a child who is just one year old on the 17th of April, 1910 should be listed as 11/12 because that was the completed months on April 15.
- Special Indian Schedule (form 8 - 1857) was a modified form of the general population schedule and was to be used primarily for the enumeration of Indians living on the reservations or Indians living in family groups outside the reservation, or any counties that contained a considerable number of Indians.
Detached Indians living in white or negro families outside the reservation were enumerated on the general population schedule (form 8 - 1589) as members of the families in which they were found; detached whites or negroes living in Indian families were enumerated on the special Indian schedule as members of the Indian families in which they were found.
There was sometimes a problem with knowing the exact age of Indians, as they would use a special event that occured in the history of their tribe to measure their birth or birthdate. With a little bit of effort, the enumerator who was aware of this fact, would calculate from the historical event to ascertain the exact age of each Indian.
- Indians born in the United States were asked as to which state or territory they were born in and also that of their parents. If an answer cannot be given it was important for the enumerator to obtain the name of the tribe in which the Indian belonged and the name of the tribe the parents were associated with.
- Indians of full blood were recorded as "full", those of mixed blood were recorded in fractions which showed the amount of Indian blood and other blood. Example: 1/4 Indian and 3/4 white, negro, or other type. column 36 was for Indian, 37 for white, 38 for negro. Verification was to be sought out from an elder of the tribe, as sometimes an Indian would be of mixed blood without knowing the fact for himself.
- If the Indian was married, enumerators were to write in how many times. If he was living with more than one wife enumerators were to write either "yes "or "no". The answer "yes" was to be written if the Indian with more than one wife was married to her sisters. If the multiple wives were not sisters, enumerators were to write in "no".
- Indians taxed were those who were not living within their tribe but living in a white community as an individual, or those who were living in their tribal surroundings, but were receiving an allotment of land, and had acquired citizenship. If the Indian was on the reservation and without allotment, or traveling unsettled land, they were not taxed.
- Indians who were living in native dwelling such as tepees, tents, hogans, wickiups, cliff dwellings, etc. were recorded as "Abor" (for aboriginal). Those living in something that would constitute the design or look of a "white man's" house, as a log or framed house, enumerators were to write "Civ" which of course was obviously the word for civilized.
1920 Enumerators Instructions
The only difference in the 1920 census from the 1910 census was that children under 5 years old were to be reported in complete years and months.
1930 Enumerators Instructions
There were specific instructions in reporting race. A person of mixed White and Negro blood was returned as Negro. Percentage did not enter into the equation in any way. If there was Negro blood, no matter how small the amount, the individual was enumerated as Negro. This also applied to those of part Indian heritage, however, if Indian blood predominated over the other race, and if they were considered Indian by the community, they were listed as Indian.
Any Indian of mixed White and Indian blood was returned as Indian, except individuals who had a very small percentage and were considered White in the community in which they lived.
To report information for Mexicans it was determined if the person was born in Mexico or had parents born in Mexico and definitely were not White, Negro, Indian ,Chinese, or Japanese, they were written as "Mex", the symbol for Mexican.
- White that was mixed with another race was reported according to the race of the parent who was not white; mixture of colored races were listed according to the father's race, except of course the mixture of Negro and Indian as stated above.
1940 Enumerators Instructions
In the 1940 census the term "household" meant one set of cooking facilities or housekeeping arrangements.
- The term "structure" was used rather then "dwelling" that had been used in the previous censuses. The 1940
housing census included vacant, occupied dwelling units, and structures. It eliminated units that were
occupied by ten or more lodgers, and also ruled out various institutions such as orphanages,
hospitals,and other places not generally considered a home. The "dwelling unit" itself was defined as
living quarters occupied by, or intended for occupancy by one household.
- Enumerators were to enter the name of each person whose usual place of residence was within the
household. Those who were temporarily absent were indicated by writing “AB” ( Children and infants were
also to be included). If the infant had not yet been given a name, the word “infant” was written.
- Institutions with employees and inmates who lived in the institution itself, or it's buildings,
constituted a household. But if any officer or employee and his family (if any), lived in separate quarters
(detached house or structure containing no inmates), were returned as a separate household. A note was made
on the left hand corner of the page indicating the name of the institution.
-In regards to race, the only change from the 1930's census was Mexicans were recorded as white unless
they were definitely Indian or some other race other then White.
- Those of white and Negro blood were considered Negro, no matter how small the percentage of Negro blood.
Both black and mulatto were recorded as Negroes, without distinction.
- Indian and Negro blood were considered Negro, unless the percent of Indian blood was definitely
predominant over the Negro blood and the community accepted and considered them as Indians.
- Indians of mixed white and Indian blood were considered Indian, only if enrolled on an Indian Agency or
Reservation roll. If they were not so enrolled, the proportion of Indian blood was one-fourth or more, or
if the person was regarded as an Indian in the community where they live.
- Mixed Races were any mixture of white and nonwhite and would be reported according to the race of the
father, with the exception of Negro-Indian who would be reported as Negro.
- Regarding the age of infants and children less then a year old, the age would have been indicated in completed months, expressed as twelfths of year.
- Enumerator's were to ask the following question in each household: ”Are there any children in this
household who were born on or after April 1, 1939?” For each child born after April 1, 1939, they were to
ascertain the actual birth and determine the proper entry by referring to a table showing ages by birth
dates in front of the schedule. A child born on May 2, 1939, should be entered as 10/12. A child born after
12:01 a.m., April 1, 1940, was not enumerated. - - An Infant Card (Form P-4) was to be filled out in
addition to the line of entries on the Population schedule, for each child born during the 4 months from
12:01 a.m., December 1, 1939 to 12:01 a.m., April 1, 1940. It was to be filled out for each child as 0/12,
1/12, 2/12, or 3/12. If the father was not a member of the household in which the infant resided, the
enumerator was to enter “Not a member of the household” in answer to question 14 and to leave questions 15
to 19 blank. If the infant’s mother was not a member of the household they were to enter," Not a member of
the household, in answer 20 and to leave questions 21, 22, and 23 blank.
-The age of a adult would sometimes be reported in a round number, such as 30 or 40, or “about 50” even
though it was not the exact age. However, if the exact age was not known, enumerators were to give an approximate age, rather than "unknown".
- For every person 5 years or older, the place of residence on April 1, 1935 was to be entered. For those
who were living in a Territory of the United States or in a foreign country enumerator's were to indicate
the fact in col.19. For a child under 5 years of age a dash was to be entered (-) in col.17 leaving cols.18,
19, and 20 blank. The purpose of this section was designed to show movement of population from one place to
another between 1935 and 1940. Of course this did not apply to anyone under the age of 5.
- Enumerators were instructed to write an “X” in a circle if information was given by a neighbor or by
someone who was not a member of the household that was being enumerated. Enumerators were instructed to
write the name of the person giving the information such as "Information from John Brown a neighbor" this
was to be recorded on the left hand margin of the page opposite the entry for the household.
- If there were objections to answering questions on the schedule, the enumerator was to explain all
information was STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL and would not be available to any persons other than sworn employees, and that the information would be used only for statistical purposes. No use would be made of it that
could harm the interests of the individuals. If there was still an objection, and the person refused to
comply, the enumerator's were to call attention to the penalty provided in section 9 of the Census Act.
Refusal to give information would be entered into the enumerator's record book with the name, address and
the words “Refused to answer”. They were to report these entries to their Squad Leader or Supervisor.
1950 Enumerators Instructions
Very few changes were made in the 1950 census from the 1940 census. Of the few changes special attention was made to distinguish institutions from households, and households that had 5 or more non-relatives of the head, other than the employees.
- College students were enumerated where they lived while attending school rather than where their home was located. Armed Forces members who slept off post were counted where they slept instead of where they were stationed.
Instructions continued to allow anyone to be designated as head of the household for relationship purposes, but if a woman was listed as head, and her husband was present, he was reclassified as the head when the completed schedule was reviewed in the office. Very few however, had to be reclassified.
- A family was distinguished from a household if the family represented a group of two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption. A household could contain one or more families, or none, occupying only one dwelling unit with quarters having separate cooking equipment. New to the 1950 census however, was a separate entrance to the dwelling.This had not been required in the 1940 census.
- For Indians, a supplemental form ( form P 6) was used to obtain additional information on Indian reservations. In addition to entering each persons name as it appeared on the regular schedule, there were those who were also known by other names. If this happened to be the case, the enumerator wrote in the other names when applicable.
- Enumerators continued to define non-dwelling unit quarters as they had in the 1940 census. Included as dwelling units were places that had fewer than 10 lodgers. In subsequent office coding, any residence with 5 to 9 lodgers was reclassified as a non- dwelling unit and was excluded from the housing inventory.
1960 Enumerators Instructions
In 1950, the use of the word "dwelling" or "non- dwelling" unit was used, but was changed to "housing units", or "group quarters" in the 1960 census. A unit with five or more lodgers or six unrelated individual (with one being designated as head), was classified as "group quarters".
- The month of birth was collected for everyone, but only the quarter was transcribed to the official schedule.
- Race or color was by observation with directions that Puerto Ricans, Mexicans, or all those of Latino decent were classified as "White" unless they were definitely Negro, Indian, or some other race. The Southern European and Near Eastern nationalities were also to be considered White. Asian Indians were classified as "other", and Hindu was to be written in.
1970 Enumerators Instructions
All answers were designed for self-identification on the part of the respondent, but the enumerator was allowed to fill in the blanks by observation when it was necessary.
- Regarding race or color, it was assumed the respondent's relatives living in the unit were also of the same race unless the census taker learned otherwise. The enumerator's manual contained a long list of possible "written-in" entries and how they were to be classified. For the census purpose, Chicano, Mexican American, Moslem, or Brown were changed to White, while "Brown (Negro)" were considered as Negro or Black.